The English Language Arts Standards describe what students should know and be able to demonstrate with a level of competency as they progress through the educational program and at graduation. The language arts - Reading, Writing, Speaking, and Listening - are unique because they are processes that students use to learn and make sense of their world. With a clearly defined target provided by the standards, educators, parents, and students become partners in learning success.
Schools of the Archdiocese of Philadelphia shall teach, challenge, and support every student to realize his/her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skill t
¨ Listen and speak appropriately for specific purposes and audiences.
¨ write appropriately for specific purposes and audiences.
¨ write informative texts that conform to appropriate formats and contain source documentation.
¨ use literary knowledge as a basis for understanding themselves, society, and their relationship with God.
¨ comprehend the meanings of different kinds of texts and presentations.
¨ access, organize, and evaluate information obtained by listening, reading, and viewing a variety of texts.
Students should be able to listen and speak appropriately for specific purposes and audiences.
1.1. Listen to others
1.1.1. Students listen in order to understand a speaker's topic, purpose, and perspective.
1.1.2. Students ask questions as a way to broaden and enrich classroom discussions.
1.1.3. Students synthesize information, ideas and opinions to determine relevancy
1.1.4. Students take effective notes
1.2. Compose responses that demonstrate appropriate grammatical and mechanical conventions of speaking.
1.2.1. Students convey a clear main point when speaking to others and stay on the topic being discussed.
1.2.2. Students adjust message wording and delivery to particular audiences and for particular purposes (e.g., to defend a position, to entertain, to inform, to persuade).
1.2.3. Use a variety of sentence structures to add interest to presentations.
1.2.4. Students use a variety of explicit techniques for presentations (e.g., modulation of voice, inflection, tempo, enunciation, physical gestures) and demonstrate poise and self-control while presenting.
1.3. Formulate, organize, and deliver a message, selecting and using appropriate presentation style to fit the situation.
1.3.1. Students present simple prepared reports to the class.
1.3.2. Students make formal presentations, such as oral reports and speeches on issues of personal concern and literary or content area interest, to the class (e.g., includes effective attention-getting introductions; definitions for clarity; supports main ideas using anecdotes, examples, statistics, analogies, and other evidence; uses visual aids or technology).
1.3.3. Students evaluate own and others' effectiveness in-group discussions and in formal presentations (e.g., evaluate accuracy, relevance, and organization of information; evaluate clarity of delivery; evaluate relationship among purpose, audience, and content; identify types of arguments used).
1.3.4. Students respond to questions and feedback about own presentations (e.g., defend ideas, expand on a topic, and use logical arguments).
2. Students should be able to write appropriately for specific purposes and audiences.
2.1. Demonstrate a competency in the use of grammatical and mechanical conventions in written compositions.
2.1.1. Students demonstrate the correct use of the personal, relative, demonstrative, reflexive, and indefinite pronouns and collective nouns;
2.1.2. Students demonstrate the correct use of the indefinite, descriptive and adjectival forms;
2.1.3. Students demonstrate the correct use of the adverbial forms and coordinating and subordinating conjunctions;
2.1.4. Students demonstrate the correct use of the verb forms: tense, mood, voice;
2.1.5. Students demonstrate the correct use of the standard spelling and capitalization conventions;
2.1.6. Students demonstrate the correct use of the ending punctuation marks and common uses of commas, colons, semicolons, hyphen, dash, apostrophe, parenthetical expressions, and quotation marks;
2.1.7. Students demonstrate the correct use of the commonly confused terms in written compositions (e.g.,affect/effect).
2.2. Demonstrate a competency in the use of mature sentence structures to suit the purpose of the writing.
2.2.1. Students demonstrate the use of compound and compound-complex sentences and show knowledge of coordinate and subordinate elements, and participial phrasing.
2.3. Demonstrate a competency to use the full writing process in composing formal essays.
2.3.1. Prewriting: Students develop a focus, plan a sequence of ideas, use structured overviews and employ graphic organizers;
2.3.2. Drafting and Revising: Students rethink content, organization, and style; check accuracy and depth of support; review writing to ensure consistency of content and linguistic purposes;
2.3.3. Editing and Publishing: Students use a proofreading checklist; edit for grammar, punctuation, spelling and capitalization; use technology to publish written work;
2.3.4. Teacher and Peer conferencing is appropriate at any stage of the writing process.
2.4. Demonstrate a competency in the stylistic and rhetorical aspects of writing.
2.4.1. Students use paragraph form in writing (e.g., paragraphs have clear topic sentences and provide supporting detail);
2.4.2. Students use thesis statements that have a clear focus, direction, and purpose;
2.4.3. Students organize ideas to achieve cohesion in writing (e.g., arrange paragraphs into logical progression, use clincher and closing sentences);
2.4.4. Students use a variety of sentence structures;
2.4.5. Students use a variety of transitional devices.
3. Write informative texts that conform to appropriate formats and contain source documentation.
3.1. Demonstrate a competency to write descriptive compositions.
3.1.1. Students use concrete details to provide a perspective on the subject being described; use supporting detail (e.g., concrete images, shifting perspectives and points of view, sensory detail, and factual descriptions of appearance).
3.2. Demonstrate a competency to write creative texts (e.g., stories, autobiographies, poems) that demonstrate different rhetorical forms.
3.2.1. Students demonstrate stylistic and rhetorical competence, including use of descriptive language, vocabulary, and literary devices; write fictional, autobiographical, and observational compositions and narrate a sequence of events; evaluate the significance of the incident; provide supporting descriptive detail.
3.3. Demonstrate a competency to write expository compositions.
3.3.1. Students synthesize and organize information from first and second-hand sources, including print and technology sources and the community; use a variety of techniques to develop the main idea (e.g., describe or differentiate parts; compare and contrast; examine history of subject; cite anecdote to provide example; illustrate through a scenario; provide interesting facts about the subject).
3.4. Demonstrate a competency to write analytical essays in response to literature.
3.4.1. Students write in response to literature (e.g., suggest an interpretation; recognize possible ambiguities, nuances, and complexities in the text; interpret passages of a text in terms of their significance to the text as a whole; focus on the theme of a literary work; explain concepts found in literary works).
3.5. Demonstrate a competency to write persuasive compositions.
3.5.1. Students evaluate, interpret, and speculate about problems/solutions and causes and effects; anticipate and address counter-arguments; back up assertions using specific rhetorical devices (e.g., appeals to emotion and reason); develop arguments using a variety of methods (e.g., examples and details, accepted beliefs, expert opinion, cause and effect reasoning, comparison/contrast reasoning); recognize and avoid logical fallacies.
3.6. Demonstrate a competency to write personal and business correspondence.
3.6.1. Students understand and demonstrate the differences among and conventionalities of personal and business correspondence (e.g., memos, job application letters, and resumes).
4. Students should be able to use literary knowledge as a basis for understanding themselves, society, and their relationship with God.
4.1. Analyze the influence of sensory, intellectual, and emotional devices in written and oral discourse.
4.1.1. Student can analyze and evaluate in poetry and prose the appropriateness of diction and figurative language
4.1.2. Student can draw inferences about context, purpose, moral values, attitudes and point of view of a writer or speaker's use of English by examining:
1. Literary and nonliterary texts (e.g., technical and statistical data, brochures, editorials);
2. Information about the history of the English language (e.g., word derivation, grammatical and structural evolution);
3. Moral, social, and political implications (e.g., political correctness, gender or cultural bias); and
4. Propaganda techniques and fallacious reasoning;
5. Diction, syntax, figurative language, and rhetorical devices
4.2. Evaluate the impact of authors' decisions and explain the effect of point of view.
4.2.1. Student analyzes relationships, uses, and effectiveness of literary elements, including characterization, setting, plot, point of view, tone and style.
4.2.2. Student analyzes the effectiveness of an author's word choice and sentence structure.
4.3. Respond to literature by making personal, historical, and visual connections
4.3.1. Student draws parallels between literary events and personal experience.
4.3.2. Student discusses the impact of tone.
4.3.3. Student examines the influence of author's background, gender, environment, and experience.
4.4. Compare similarities and differences among various historical periods and present societies, using literary knowledge and multimedia materials.
4.4.1. Students write and deliver critical analyses of complex literature written in various countries and during various historical periods [includes (1) conventions associated with the literature of various historical periods and cultures; (2) multicultural, gender, and ethnic diversity in language use, patterns, and dialects; (3) great works (e.g., images and ideas, episodes, characters, and quotations); (4) great themes of literature and their universality across cultures (e.g., themes of initiation, love and duty, heroism, illusion and reality, salvation, death, and rebirth); and (5) explanations of how the themes are developed in specific works from various historical periods and cultures].
4.4.2. Examine the interrelatedness of language, literature, and culture [includes (1) explaining how history and culture are reflected in works of a given period; (2) identifying features of common literary genres; (3) evaluating literature and art forms from other cultures; (4) developing criteria for judging the quality of reading, writing, and speaking; and (5) participating in alternative communications in response to literature (e.g., delivering a soliloquy from a different point of view, composing music or painting scenery to accompany the dramatization of a period piece)].
5. Students should be able to comprehend the meanings of different kinds of texts and presentations
5.1. Extend critical reading skills, develop a reading-recognition vocabulary, and prepare for standardized testing through a programmed study of vocabulary and/or a study of vocabulary in a literary context.
5.1.1. Students use knowledge of word structure (root words, prefixes, and suffixes) and words from literary works to recognize the meaning of new words during reading.
5.1.2. Students use context skills in determining meaning from the word's use in text.
5.2. Read unfamiliar printed, electronic, and oral texts, using effective strategies for comprehending both literal and implied meanings.
5.2.1. Students summarize and paraphrase concepts in informational texts, including the relationships among the concepts and details.
5.2.2. Students read aloud fluently and expressively to convey a clear interpretation of the work, including (1) prepared and extemporaneous readings; (2) group and individual presentations; and (3) controlled rate, inflection, pitch, volume, quality, and articulation.
5.2.3. Students use discussions with peers as a way of understanding information.
5.2.4. Students draw conclusions and make inferences based on explicit and implicit information in texts.
5.2.5. Students support inferences about information in texts by referring to text features (e.g., vocabulary, text structure).
5.2.6. Students use new information from texts to clarify or refine understanding of previously learned academic concepts.
5.2.7. Students reorganize the concepts and details in informational texts in new ways and describe the advantages and disadvantages of the new organization.
5.2.8. Students evaluate the clarity and accuracy of information.
5.3. Demonstrate understanding of oral and printed texts and presentations by interpreting the impact of figurative language and literary devices.
5.3.1. Student can analyze the effectiveness, in terms of literary quality, of the author's use of literary devices including:
1. Sound techniques (e.g. rhyme, rhythm, meter, and alliteration)
2. Figurative language (e.g. personification, simile, metaphor, hyperbole, irony, satire)
3. Literary structure (e.g. foreshadow, flashback, progressive and digressive time)
5.3.2. Students explain how the author or speaker has organized the details to produce a dominating effect, impression, or theme, including (1) examining language, setting, point of view, plot, character, and conflict; (2) identifying central ideas and explaining how the ideas were developed through related constituent ideas; (3) considering biases, points of view, persuasive devices; and (4) interpreting the impact of nuances and shades of meaning.
5.4. Students apply reading skills and strategies to a variety of informational texts (texts which emphasize American, British, and World Literature; and e.g., shorts stories, novels, poems, plays, biographical sketches; letters; diaries; directions; magazines; essays; primary-source historical documents; editorials; news stories; periodicals; catalogs; speeches).
5.5. Students know the defining characteristics of a variety of informational texts (e.g., shorts stories, novels, poems, plays, biographical sketches, letters, diaries, essays, primary-source historical documents, editorials, news stories, periodicals, catalogs, job-related materials, speeches).
6. Students should be able to access, organize, and evaluate information obtained by listening, reading, and viewing a variety of texts.
6.1. Identify, locate, and select information relevant to projects.
6.1.1. Students use a variety of available library and research tools such asReader's Guide to Periodical Literatureand other indexes, computer catalogs, microfiche, government publications, and online information resources to gather and evaluate relevant information for research projects.
6.1.2. Students determine the validity and reliability of primary and secondary source information and use information accordingly in reporting on a research topic.
6.2. Students use a variety of media and formats to locate, evaluate and collect information from a variety of sources.
6.2.1. Select and apply technology tools for research, including library services and resources; Internet; and database sources.
6.2.2. Evaluate technology-based sources as to effectiveness and author's purpose.
6.2.3. Demonstrate legal and ethical behaviors of accessing information, including fair-use policies and non-plagiarism in preparing reports and projects.
6.3. Organize, manipulate, and use relevant information and ideas to complete projects.
6.3.1. Students develop presentations, reports, and research papers, and effectively use supporting documentation through summary, paraphrase, and direct quotations.
6.3.2. Students organize information and ideas from multiple sources in systematic ways (e.g., outlines, notes, graphic representations).
6.3.3. Students use standard referencing and bibliographic conventions, such as those recommended by the Modern Language Association.
6.4. Assess the validity of sources and information.
6.4.1. Students consider the motives and perspectives of the authors of all sources.
6.5. Students synthesize information from multiple research studies to draw conclusions that go beyond those found in any of the individual studies.